Management of pediatric Temporomandibular joint ankylosis: use of costochondral rib graft with interpositional temporalis myofacial flap
Keywords:Ankylosis. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders. Temporomandibular Joint. Surgical Flaps. Mandibular Condyle. Rib. Arthroplasty. Temporal Muscle. Oral Surgical Procedures.
Background: The posttraumatic ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is frequently seen in children in Pakistan. The factors which favour in the development of this condition are; the children exhibit much more liability to emergency management, greater difficulty in clinical and radiological examination, state of mixed dentition, faster rate of healing, non-availability of specialists and low socioeconomic status of the patient. Different autogenous and alloplastic interpositional materials have been attempted after the resection of the ankylotic bone to achieve desirable results. Method: All patients were presented at Punjab Dental and Children Complex Hospitals Lahore. Twenty-three children (age 1 to 15years) with 28 joints underwent costochondral arthroplasty with interpositional temporalis myofacial flap, out of which 6 were of re-ankylosis after surgery at other centres. The costochondral graft was fixed by tripod screws with remaining ramus condylar unit. The surgery was planned after caref ul examination and final radiographic confirmation. The preoperative CT scan was also performed in few patients. Results: The surgical protocol is used to achieve the desirable interincisal jaw opening (>30mm) that was also the postoperative criteria for successful surgery. Five patients with bilateral ankylosis were operated and one patient with additional ipsilateral coronoidectomy. Less than 30mm interincisal opening was considered as unsatisfactory jaw opening. The overall success rate was 96% with only one patient was observed with less than 30mm opening. The lateral and protrusive jaw movements were assessed as excellent, good and poor. The immediate postoperative complications were transient. Conclusion: The ankylosis develops mainly after damage to mandibular condyles or TMJ at a growing age. Results with the procedure were encouraging without noticeable complications during an average follow up of one year.
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