Morphological Changes Produced by Aminoglycoside Induced Nephrotoxicity - An Experimental Study
Aminoglycosides are very commonly used antibiotics to treat life threatening infections because they display many highly desirable properties. The major limitations to their uses being their adverse effects, such as nephrotoxicity. The purpose of present study was to see and compare the morphological changes in kidneys caused by the use of aminoglycosides in animal model. The study was conducted on eighteen male local breed rabbits weighing 1 to 1.75 Kg and age ranging from 8 to 10 months for the period of 20 days. These animals were divided in three groups at random with 6 animals in each group. Two groups (G & A) were given Aminoglycosides namely Gentamicin and Amikacin in doses 10 times larger than corresponding human clinical dose to produce experimental nephrotoxicity while third group being control was injected only isotonic saline. After sacrificing the animals the histological examination of the kidneys revealed morphological changes mainly involving the renal tubules which show patchy necrosis along with hyaline and granular casts in their lumina. Dropped out tubular cells were also seen in the lumina of some of the renal tubules. The lining epithelial cells show hydropic changes with cytoplasmic vacuoles at some areas while regeneration at others. The glomerulae showed mild hypercellularity and congestion in most of the sections. The renal interstitium showed infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages while the renal vascular changes were limited to focal congestion only but the changes were more pronounced in gentamicin treated group. It is concluded that Aminoglycosides cause nephrotoxicity by producing damaging effects on renal tubules especially at higher does, so their administration should carefully be monitored for early detection and prevention of toxic effects.
Keywords: Aminoglycoside, Nephrotoxicity, Hypercellularity, Congestion, Regeneration, Necrosis.
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