Frequency of Conventional Risk Factors in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Males and Females
Background: The frequency of conventional risk factors for acute coronary syndrome differs in women compared to men, both in the general population and in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Objective: To find out the frequency of conventional risk factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome in males and females that exists in Pakistani patient population.
Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Material and Methods: A total of one hundred patients with acute coronary syndrome who presented in the Cardiology Department, Mayo Hospital Lahore were interviewed between May, 2008 and March 2009. Patients were enquired about the presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Information was also obtained regarding smoking and history of ischemic heart disease in their first degree relatives. Lipid profile was recorded from the investigation chart of every patient.
Results: 91% of subjects had at least one risk factor out of four conventional factors. When comparing men and women, more women were hypertensive and diabetic (p = 0.003 and 0.009 respectively). None of the females had ever smoked as compared to 34% of males (P = <0.001).
Conclusion: Women with acute coronary syndrome, when compared to men, have more prevalence of diabetes and hyper-tension, and less prevalence of smoking. Further research is needed to better understand the gender differences in various aspects of ischemic heart disease that exist in our population.
Key Words: Acute coronary syndrome, gender differences, risk factors.
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