A Study of the Anthropometric and Demographical Profile of Patients Presenting with Coronary Artery Disease at Mayo Hospital, Lahore
AbstractCoronary artery disease (CAD) is very common in the South Asian sub-continent, yet there is relatively little published rese-arch available from these countries. Although we have a very active Cardiology Department in Mayo Hospital, Lahore, there is a parallel need for documentation of the data generated and its analysis for research and publication. This study was carried out to gain an insight into the nature of the risk factors and presentation of CAD in patients coming to our setup.
Objectives: The objective was to study the relation of CAD with anthropometric (BMI, waist circumference, waist – to – height ratio) and demographical (age and gender) factors.
Methodology: This study was carried out in the Department of Cardiology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, for a duration of 17 months. We collected the required information (such as name, gender, and family history, demographical data and anthro-pometric measurements) on a prescribed proforma, managed and then analyzed accordingly.
Results: In this study there were 302 (80.5%) males and 73 (19.5%) females. The number of males was significantly higher (p-value 0.000), but the frequency of different diagnoses was statistically the same in both males and females, i.e. p-value = 0.062. According to the WHO recommended criteria for the BMI of South Asian populations, there were 9(2.4%) people who were under weight, among these 7 (77.8%) were males and 2 (22.2%) were females patients. Out of 302 males, 7(2.3%) were under weight, 36 (11.9%) were of normal weight, 115 (38.1%) were overweight and the rest of 144 (47.7%) were obese. Among 73 females, 2 (2.7%) were under weight, 8 (11%) had normal weight, 15 (20.5%) were overweight and 48 (65.8%) were obese. The proportion of obesity was more in females in this study, p-value (0.000). The mean waist circumference of all patients was 95.57 ± 17.14 cm with a range of 53 – 190 cm. The waist circumference was statistically higher in males than females, p-value = 0.000. In 7 under weight males, 6 patients had WC < 90 cm while one had ≥ 90 cm. Among 36 male patients of normal weight, 19 had WC < 90 and 17 had ≥ 90 cm, while in 115 over weight males 28 patients had WC < 90 cm and 87 had ≥ 90 cm. In 144 obese males 13 patients had WC < 90 cm and 131 had ≥ 90 cm. In males the mean waist to height ratio (WHtR) was 0.5789 ± 0.091 with the range (0.31 – 1.23) and in females it was 0.64 ± 0.11 cm with range (0.36 – 1.28).
Conclusion: Obesity as a risk factor is significantly present in our patients of coronary heart disease, more so in females, in which it appears to be more central or abdominal in character as compared to males, although there is considerable central adiposity in males, too. There is an imperfect correlation between the various measures of obesity, i.e., BMI, WC and WHtR when applied to our patients. More than one parameter should be used to reduce the chances of missing cases.
Key words: Heart Disease, Obesity, Risk Factors of Heart Disease.
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