Periodontal Diseases – A Shisha Smoker’s Worst Nightmare

Periodontal Diseases – A Shisha Smoker’s Worst Nightmare


  • Abdul Razzaq Malik
  • Wasif Ali Khan
  • Inayat- ur -Rahman
  • Saman Malik




Objectives:  To review the effects of smoking shisha on oral health, with particular emphasis on the effects of periodontal diseases. The present study was under-taken to evaluate smoking as a risk factor for perio-dontal disease in Rawalpindi. A total of 250 patients between the age group of 20 - 55 years with the habit of smoking shisha participated in this study. This was based on gender, age group, frequency and duration of smoking shisha and its effects on periodontal health.

Methods:  The prevalence of smoking was 77% amo-ng men and 33% among women. Among men, the highest prevalence was observed in the youngest age group (20 - 40 years). Among women the highest pre-valence was observed in one of the older age groups (46 - 50 years). The levels of plaque and gingivitis were recorded on four sites of all teeth present exclu-ding third molars, using the plaque index (PLI) and gingival index (GI.)

Results:  Showed increase in gingival inflammation, calculus formation, and bleeding and moderate pocket formation. The duration of smoking had significant in-fluence on periodontal health since smoking for more than 10yrs being more liable for presence of pockets than smokers for > 5 years.

Key words:  Smoking, Shisha smoking, Risk Factors and Periodontal Diseases.


How to Cite

Malik, A. R., Khan, W. A., -Rahman, I.-. ur, & Malik, S. (2014). Periodontal Diseases – A Shisha Smoker’s Worst Nightmare. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 18(4), 338.



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