Frequency and Pattern of Oral and Maxillo-facial Carcinomas
Objective: To determine the frequency and pattern of carcinomas in Oral and Maxillofacial region, in particular relation to the primary sub site and involvement of the level of lymph nodes in the neck.
Study Design: Descriptive study.
Place and Duration of the Study: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, King Edward Medical University/ Mayo Hospital Lahore and Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Lahore (INMOL), from 1st October 2007 to 30th September 2008.
Patients and Methods: Inclusion criteria: patients of all age groups and gender with biopsy (incisional or excisional) proven carcinomas of the oral and maxillofacial region. Exclusion criteria: Irradiated patients and patients with metastatic carcinomas in head and neck region.
Results: Squamous cell carcinoma was found in 84.28% (n = 118) patients out of 140 cases, Adenocarcinoma was 5.7% (n = 8), Basal cell carcinoma was 0.7% (n = 1), Acinic cell carcinoma was 1.4% (n = 2), Adenoid cystic carcinoma was 3.6% (n = 5), Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was 3.6% (n = 5) and Verrucous carcinoma was found in 0.7% (n = 1) patients. The levels of lymph nodes involved were as follows; level I 35.7% (n = 50), level II 24% (n = 34), level III 11.4% (n = 16), level IV 6.4% (n = 9) and level V 3.5% (n = 5) in all 140 cases. There were 10% (n = 14) cases of parotid gland tumors, 28.6% (n = 39) tongue carcinomas, 11.4% (n = 16) maxilla, 22.1% (n = 31) buccal mucosa, 15% (n = 21) mandible, 8.5% (n = 12) floor of the mouth and 4.3% (n = 6) cases of palate. Most of the patients with Squamous cell carcinoma presented with T3 and T4 which were 33.9% (n=40) and 43% (n=51) respectively. Histopathologically, SCC with well-differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated varieties were 27.12% (n = 32), 33.9% (n = 40) and 38.98% (n = 46) respectively. Most of the SCC patients were of stage stage-III or stage IV 41.5% (n = 49) and 35.5% (n = 42) respectively.
Conclusion: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer of oral and maxillofacial region and most frequent site for squamous cell carcinoma is oral tongue.
Key words: Oral carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, precancerous lesions, TNM staging.
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