Determinants for transmission of hepatitis B and C
Objective: To find out the determinants of transmission of hepatitis B and C in patients admitted in medical wards and to assess the knowledge and practices of the patient regarding transmission of hepatitis B and C infection.
Design: A case-control study.
Place and Duration of the Study: In Gastroenterology ward Medical Unit 1 Punjab Medical College and Allied Hospital Faisalabad and Plastic Surgery Ward, KEMU, Lahore. Duration of the study is one year and started in May 2006.
Patients and Methods: Patients of hepatitis B and C admitted in Gastroenterology ward Medical unit 1 were interviewed and data was collected using a structured proforma. The study controls were selected who were negative for Hepatitis B and C on ELIZA method and were admitted in same ward. At 95% confidence interval the sample size was calculated as 230, 115 cases and 115 controls. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 13.
Results: Total number of the patients that participated in the study was 230 i.e., 55 with Hepatitis B, 60 with Hepatitis C and 115 in control group. The determinant of transmission of Hepatitis B found statistically significant included age, socioe-conomic status, occupations like health care workers, barbers, business owners with frequent travels, sex workers and sani-tary workers, reuse of syringes, surgical and dental procedures, cesarean section in females, accidents and blood loss, paren-teral drugs and drips, I/V drug abuse, ear and nose piercing, tattooing, getting shave and hair cut from barbers, sharing of tooth brush, contact and family history of hepatitis, extra marital sex, lack of knowledge about transmission of Hepatitis, and non-practicing of active and passive immunization. The variables found statistically significant in Hepatitis C infection inclu-ded reuse of the syringes, blood transfusions, surgical and dental procedures, accidents and blood loss, parenteral drugs and drips, I/V drug abuse, getting shave and hair cut from barbers, sharing of razors, contact and family history of hepatitis. The knowledge and practices regarding spread of Hepatitis B and C were poor.
Conclusion: There is a need to create awareness about determinants and transmission of Hepatitis B and C in our com-munity. The professions at risk should be investigated for Hepatitis periodically and both active and passive immunization should be available to them. The vaccination against Hepatitis B should be strongly recommended for high risk groups. Proper screening of the blood products, sterilization of surgical instruments and universal precautions against the spread of infection should be implemented
Key Words: Determinants, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, transmission.
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