Spectrum of Renal Parenchymal Diseases: An Eleven Year Retrospective Review of Renal Biopsy Data from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan
Keywords:Renal disease, renal biopsy, nephrotic syndrome, haematuria, registries.
Objective: To report our experience with renal biopsy and histopathological pattern of renal disease in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan over 11 years period.
Methods: All the kidney biopsies performed in our unit from Jan 2001 to Dec 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. We recorded the following data for each patient: name, age, sex, indications for renal biopsy, histopathological diagnosis and lab investigations such as Serum Creatinine, 24 hour urinary protein, urine microscopy, virology (Hbs Ag, Anti HCV) and serology (antids DNA, ANA, C3, C4, C-ANCA and p-ANCA) when indicated. Histopathological examination included Light Microscopy (LM) and Immunofluorescence Microscopy (IF). For LM, six sections were taken and stained with Haemotoxilin and Eosin, and special stains included Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Trichome and Grocott’ Smethanamine Silver Stain (GMS). IF study was done using polyclonal antisera against human IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 and Cq. The renal biopsies were performed by a trained Nephrologist.
Results: A total of 329 consecutive percutaneous renal biopsies of native kidneys were reviewed. A total of thirteen specimens were unsatisfactory. Nineteen cases had incomplete data, therefore were excluded. There were 159 males (53.3%) and 138 females (46.46%). Age distribution showed a total no. of 34 (11.44%) of paediatric cases, 238 (80.13%) adult cases and 25 (10.5 %) elderly cases. The most common clinical indication for renal biopsy was unexplained renal failure (n = 116 39%) followed by nephrotic syndrome (n = 83 27.9%). Of the total biopsies included 248 (82.82%) had glomerular disease and 49 (16.49%) had non glomerular disease. The most frequently found primary glomerular lesion was membranous nephropathy (n = 51 17%) followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 26 8.7%). Amongst the non-glomerular lesions, CIN (chronic interstitial nephritis) was the most frequently found lesion (n = 24 8.08%).
Conclusion: Membranous Nephropathy followed by Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis were the most frequently found renal lesion.
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