Diagnosis and management of uric acid nephrolithiasis
Keywords:Nephrolithiasis. Uric Acid. Kidney Calculi. Calcium Oxalate. Urinary Calculi. Gout. Hyperuricemia. Potassium Citrate. Lithotripsy.
The aim is to provide an account of the diagnosis & management of uric acid stones. Material & methods: A search was made on the topic of uric acid stones with regard to the diagnosis & management of uric acid stones. Results: The incidence of uric acid stones varies between countries and account for 5% to 40% of all urinary calculi. Uric acid stone cannot be seen on x-ray. Intra venous uroghraphy, CT scan or sonoghraphy is required for their diagnosis. This is the only stone that can be reliably dissolved by urinary alkalization with alkali (Bicarbonates, citrate). This medical treatment is highly effective resulting in dissolution of existing stones & prevention of stones. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy can be used successfully for uric acid stones. Open surgery is still performed especially for large complicated staghorn stones. Conclusion: Medical management with urinary alkalization for uric acid stone dissolution and prevention of recurrence is effective.
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