Common determinants of Ca breast - a case control study in Lahore

Common determinants of Ca breast - a case control study in Lahore


  • Shahid Mahmood
  • Tasneem Fatima Rana
  • Maaz Ahmad



Breast Neoplasms. Neoplasms. Case Control Study. Population Groups. Mammography. Breast Self-Examination. Fibrocystic Breast Disease. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating. Breast Diseases.


Background Ca breast is commonest malignancy in females all over the world and 2nd leading cause of death in females. In Pakistan, it is more common in young age (incidence in 30-39 years) contrary to west (over 65years). Genetics ,use of oral hormonal contraceptives, prolonged hormonal replacement therapy, environmental hazards and parity are also considered to play an important role in causation of ca. breast .This morbidity pattern of young age in Pakistan is a real concern for the health care planners and providers. Objectives:-To know the etiological factors in the area, to formulate a public awareness programme for reduction in mortality and morbidity due to breast cancer in Pakistan Study design:-Case Control Study. Place and duration of the study: - Mayo and INMOL hospitals. Jan-June, 2005.Respondants and methods:-Pre- tested questionnaire was used to interview the cases and control groups Results:-Ca breast is significantly more in married, young age, with 3 or more children, breast feeding moth ers. Conclusion: - Early marriages environmental hazards, genetic predisposition and hormonal imbalance are the most important suspected causes. Cancer awareness and screening programme with community participation are the best feasible approaches for rectification of the situation.




How to Cite

Mahmood, S., Rana, T. F., & Ahmad, M. (2016). Common determinants of Ca breast - a case control study in Lahore. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 12(2).



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